Additives & Polymers for High Temperature Structural Adhesives (2023)

Effects of Elevated Service Temperature

Effects of Elevated Service Temperature

For an adhesive bond to be useful, it must not only withstandthe mechanical forces that act on it, but it must also resist the elementsto which it is exposed during service. One of the most degrading elementsfor organic adhesives is heat. To synthesizehigh temperature polymer systems for structural adhesives is a never ending challenge.

Let's take a look at the resins capable of withstanding extreme temperatures along with some important class of additives.

All polymeric materials are degraded to some extent by exposure to elevatedtemperature. Not only do elevated temperatures lower short-term physicalproperties, but properties will also likely degrade with prolonged thermalaging. Thus, several important questions need to be asked for an adhesiveif high service temperatures are expected.

  • What is the maximum temperature that the bond will be exposedto in service?
  • What is the average temperature to which the bond will be exposed?

Ideally, one would like to have a definition of the entire temperature- time relationship representing the adhesive's expected servicehistory. This data would include time at various temperatures, numberof temperature cycles, and rates of temperature change.

Creep and Lack of Cohesive Strength

Certain polymers have excellent resistance to high temperatures overshort durations (e.g., several minutes or hours). The short-term effectof elevated temperature is primarily one of increasing the molecular mobilityof the adhesive. Thus, depending on the adhesive, the bond could actuallyshow increased toughness but lower shear strength. Certain polymers withlower glass transition temperatures will show softness and a high degreeof creep at elevated temperatures.

However, prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures may cause severalreactions to occur in the adhesive. These mechanisms can weaken the bondboth cohesively and adhesively. The main reactions that affect the bulkadhesive material are:

  • Oxidation
  • Pyrolysis

These reactionsgenerally result in brittleness and loss of cohesive strength. Thermalaging can also affect adhesion by causing changes at the interface.These changes include:
  • Internal stress on the interface due to shrinkage of thepolymer
  • Chemical reactions with the substrate, and
  • Reduced peel or cleavagestrength because of brittleness

If heating brings a non-crosslinked adhesive above its glass transitiontemperature, the molecules will become so flexible that their cohesivestrength will drastically decrease. In this flexible, mobile condition,the adhesive is susceptible to creep and greater chemical or moisturepenetration occurs. Generally with a crosslinked adhesive, prolonged heatingat an excessively elevated temperature will have the following effects:
  • Split polymer molecules (chain scission) causing lower molecularweight, degraded cohesive strength, and low molecular weight byproducts.
  • Continued crosslinking resulting in bond embrittlement and shrinkage.
  • Evaporation of plasticizer resulting in bond embrittlement.
  • Oxidation (if oxygen or a metal oxide interface is present) resultingin lower cohesive strength and weak boundary layers.

Most organic adhesives degrade rapidly at service temperatures greaterthan 150°C. However, several polymeric materials have been found towithstand up to 250-300°C continuously and even higher temperaturesfor a short-term basis. To use these materials one must generally paya premium in adhesive cost and also be able to provide long, high temperaturecures, often with pressure. Long-term temperature resistance, greaterthan 250-300°C, can only be accomplished with inorganic or ceramic-basedadhesives.

Requirements of the Base Polymer

Requirements of the Base Polymer

The base polymer, of course, is a key ingredient in a high temperatureadhesive system. For an adhesive to withstand elevated temperatures itmust have a high melting or softening point, and resistance to oxidation.

1. A High Softening Point or Glass Transition Temperature

Materials with a low melting point, such as many of thethermoplasticadhesives, may prove excellent adhesives at room temperature. However,once the service temperature approaches the glass transition, plasticflow results in deformation of the bond and degradation of cohesive strength.

Thermosetting adhesives, exhibiting no melting point, consist of highlycrosslinked networks of macromolecules. Because of this dense crosslinkedstructure, they show relatively little creep at elevated temperaturesand exhibit relatively little loss of mechanical function when exposedto either elevated temperatures or other degrading environments. Manyof these materials are suitable for high temperature applications.

2. Resistance to Oxidation Degradation

When considering thermosets, the critical factor is the rate of strengthreduction due to thermal oxidation or pyrolysis. Thermal oxidation canresult in chain scission or crosslinking. Crosslinking causes the polymerto increase in molecular weight, leading to brittleness and decreasedelongation.

Progressive chain scission of molecules results the following losses within the bulk adhesive:

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  • Weight
  • Strength
  • Elongation, and
  • Toughness

Figure below, illustrates the effect of oxidation by comparing adhesive jointsthat are aged in both high temperature air and inert gas (nitrogen) environments.The rate of bond strength degradation in air depends on the temperature,the adhesive, the rate of airflow, and even the type of adherend.
Additives & Polymers for High Temperature Structural Adhesives (1)
The Effect of 260°C Aging in Air and Nitrogen on anEpoxy-phenolic Adhesive

Some metal adhesive interfaces are chemically capable of acceleratingthe rate of oxidation. For example, it has been found that nearly alltypes of structural adhesives exhibit better thermal stability when bondedto aluminum than when bonded to stainless steel or titanium

3. Resistance to Thermally Induced Chain Scission

Pyrolysis is simple thermal destruction of the molecular chain of thebase polymer in the adhesive or sealant formulation. Pyrolysis causeschain scission and decreased molecular weight of the bulk polymer. Thisresults in both reduced cohesive strength and brittleness. Resistanceto pyrolysis is predominantly a function of the intrinsic heat resistanceof the polymers used in the adhesive formulation. As a result, many ofthe polymers that are used as base resins in high temperature adhesivesare rigidly crosslinked or are made of a molecular backbone referred toas a "ladder" structure as shown in the figure below.
Additives & Polymers for High Temperature Structural Adhesives (2)

Degradation of a Ladder Polymer andStraight Chain Polymer due to Thermal Aging

The ladder structure is made from aromatic or heterocyclic rings in themain polymer structure. The rigidity of the molecular chain decreasesthe possibility of chain scission by preventing thermally agitated vibrationof the chemical bonds. The ladder structure provides high bond dissociatingenergy and acts as an energy sink to its environment.

Notice in the figure above that to have a complete chain separation (resulting in a decrease inthe molecular weight) two bonds must be broken in the ladder polymer.Whereas, only one needs to be broken on a more conventional linear orbranched chain structure.

In order to be considered as a promising candidate for high temperatureapplications, an adhesive must provide all of the usual functions necessaryfor good adhesion (wettability, low shrinkage on cure, thermal expansioncoefficient similar to the substrate, toughness, etc.)

Conventional High Temperature Polymers for Structural Adhesives

Conventional High Temperature Polymers for Structural Adhesives

High temperature adhesives are usually characterized by a rigid polymericstructure, high glass transition temperature, and stable chemical groups.The same factors also make these adhesive relatively difficult to process.

Only certain epoxy phenolic, bismaleimide, polyimide, and polybenzimidazoleadhesive can withstand long-term service greater than 177°C. However,modified epoxy and even certain cyanoacrylate adhesives have moderatelyhigh short-term temperature resistance. Silicone adhesive also have excellenthigh temperature permanence, but they exhibit low shear strength and maynot be applicable for "structural" applications.

Propertiesof these adhesive systems are compared in the table below.

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Modified Epoxy




Silicone Rubber

Pressure SensitiveSilicone

Temperature Range, °C

-55 to 177

-251 to 260

-40 to 246

-251 to 315

-73 to 232

-40 to 260

  • Time,min
  • Temp, °C
  • Pressure, psi

  • 60
  • 177
  • 10-50

  • 60
  • 177
  • 10-100

  • Seconds
  • RoomTemp
  • Contact

  • 90
  • 288to371
  • 50

  • 24hours
  • RoomTemp
  • Contact

  • 5-10
  • 100
  • Minimal
  • 20°C
  • 175°C
  • 1260°C

  • 4330
  • 2300
  • --
  • 3800
  • 2500
  • 2000

  • 3120
  • 970
  • 430

  • 3300
  • --
  • 2300

  • 275
  • --
  • 275

  • 3-10 piw
  • --
  • 3-10 piw

Short Term Strength and CureProperties of High Temperature Structural Adhesives

There are even fewer sealants suitable for long term, high temperatureservice. The thermal endurance requirement of a highly crosslinked polymergenerally is counter to the requirement that a sealant must be flexible.Silicone based elastomers and some very special elevated temperature elastomersare the only products that will provide both thermal endurance and a significantdegree of flexibility.

There are manypolymers that are not mentioned here because they are used in relativelysmall amounts or are still considered in the developmental stage. Thereader may want to consider a large number of textbooks and research paperson the development of high temperature polymers.

These high temperature resins will provide the main elements in the adhesiveformulator's recipe. However, as will be shown in following sectionsof this paper, there are also additives, fillers, etc. that can furtherenhance the thermal properties of these adhesives. These additional componentswill improve thermal resistance by providing oxidation resistance, toughening,and control of bondline stress.

Additives & Polymers for High Temperature Structural Adhesives (3)

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Oxidation Resistance

Oxidation Resistance

Oxidation in high temperature adhesive joints involves reaction of theadhesive polymer with oxygen in the air as well as reaction with certainmetal surfaces (e.g., ferrous metals). Oxidative degradation is initiatedby the action of highly reactive free radicals caused by heat or metallicimpurities. The function of the antioxidant is to prevent propagationor the reaction of these free radicals with oxygen to form unstable species.

Using Antioxidants

Antioxidants should be included in high temperature adhesive formulations in order to achieve optimum thermal aging properties. Antioxidants usein structural adhesives differ from those used to improve thermal stabilityof thermoplastic materials. Here, they must be less volatile, resistantto higher temperatures, longer acting, and of course compatible with thebase polymer. Antioxidants used in structural adhesives are generallyof inorganic origin; whereas, antioxidants used to prevent oxidation duringpolymerization, processing, or fabrication of plastics are of organicorigin.

Arsenic based antioxidants, such as arsenic pentoxide and arsenic thioarsenate,had been used extensively in the past to retard oxidation. In a polyimideadhesive formulation, for example, arsenic compounds were found to improvethermal resistance. At 315°C no loss in strength was exhibited after1000 hrs and substantial strength (1300 psi) was retained after 2000 hrsexposure. Without the arsenic additive there was marked reduction afteronly 200 hrs at 315°C.

The use of arsenic compounds have been greatly curtailedbecause of health and safety concerns. Antimony trioxide and similar compoundsare now commonly found in high temperature adhesives to forestall as bestas possible the effects of oxidation Compounds found to improve thermalaging include Bi2O3 andSb2O3 and others belongingto Group V and having secondary valances of 3 and 5. Usually, concentrationsof less than 1% are effective.

Oxidative stability depends on the adherend surface aswell as on the adhesive itself. Some metal adhesive interfaces are chemicallycapable of accelerating the rate of oxidation. For example, it has beenfound that nearly all types of structural adhesives exhibit better thermalstability when bonded to glass or aluminum than when bonded to stainlesssteel or titanium.1 For any given metal, themethod of surface preparation can also determine oxide characteristics,and hence bond durability. Thus, the use of primers is common practicewith high temperature structural adhesives.

Using Chelating Agents

Chelating agents are sometimes used as scavengers to capture undesirablemetal ions. These compounds react directly with the metallic substrate,thereby inhibiting its catalytic effects on oxidation. The effect of severaldifferent chelating agents on the resistance of epoxy-phenolic bondedaluminum joints to thermal aging is shown in the table below.
Chelating Agent at 1% By Weight

Shear Strength, psi*



n-propyl gallate


Gallic acid


Acetyl Acetone




Aluminum Triacetonylacetonate




Effect of Several ChelatingAgents on the Resistance of an Epoxy-Phenolic Adhesive to Thermal Aging2
* Measured on aluminum adherends;tested at 23°C after aging 200 hrs at 286°C

Improving Toughness in High Heat Structural Adhesives

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Improving Toughness in High Heat Structural Adhesives

For many years, the typical method of improving the toughness of hightemperature structural adhesives was to add elastomeric resins to rigidhigh temperature base polymer to create a hybrid product such as epoxy-nitrileor phenolic-nitrile systems. However, the toughening of high temperatureadhesives can provide a difficult challenge, since the service temperaturesusually exceed the degradation point of most rubber additives. Also, theaddition of an elastomer generally resulted in lowering of the glass transitiontemperature of the base polymer.

However, newer adhesives systems having moderate temperature resistancehave been developed with improved toughness without sacrificing otherproperties. When cured, these structural adhesives have discrete elastomericparticles embedded in the matrix. The most common toughened hybrids usingthis concept are acrylic and epoxy systems. The elastomer is generallya vinyl or carboxyl terminated acrylonitrile butadiene copolymer

Within the past several years, improvements in the toughening of hightemperature epoxies and other reactive thermosets, such as cyanate estersand bismaleimides, have been accomplished through the incorporation ofengineering thermoplastics. Additions of poly(arylene ether ketone), PEK,and poly(aryl ether sulfone), PES, have been found to improve fracturetoughness. Direct addition of these thermoplastics generally improvesfracture toughness but result in decreased tensile properties and reducedchemical resistance.

Chemical functionalization of the thermoplastics was found to improvetoughness without such detractions. High molecular weight resins basedon amine terminated PES oligomers or chain extension of bismaleimide resinwith the same amine terminated PES were found to have improved fractureresistance and reduced thermal shrinkage.3 Also a mechanism was foundto toughen cyanate esters by incorporating epoxy resins, which can reactwith a cyanate ester.4

Reducing Internal Stress

Reducing Internal Stress

Internal stresses are common in joints made with high temperature adhesives.These stresses can be due to:
  1. The high temperature bonding processes generally used
  2. The temperature excursions and cycling between ambient and service temperature,and
  3. Thermal shrinkage that occurs after the adhesive is aged for a periodof time at elevated temperatures

Stresses caused by (1) and (2) factors above, are exasperated by the mismatchin thermal expansion coefficients between the adhesive and the substrate.Incorporating fillers into the adhesive formulation can often reduce thesestresses. Fillers reduce the thermal shrinkage during aging by bulk displacementof the polymeric resin.

Flexibilizers generally cannot be used to counteract internal stressbecause of their relatively low glass transition temperature and thermalendurance properties. However, most high temperature adhesive systemsincorporate metallic fillers (generally aluminum powder) to reduce thecoefficient of thermal expansion and degree of shrinkage.

It is usually not possible to match the adhesive's coefficientof thermal expansion to the substrate, because of the higher filler loadingsthat would be required. High loading volumes increase viscosity to thepoint where the adhesive could not be easily applied or wet a substrate.For some base polymers, filler loading values up to 200 parts per hundredmay be employed, but optimum cohesive strength values are usually obtainedwith lesser amounts.

(Video) Bonding Low Surface Energy Substrates with 3M™ Scotch-Weld™ Structural Acrylic Adhesives

Metal fillers for high temperature adhesives must be carefully selectedbecause of their possible affect on oxidation as indicated in the previoussection. Carrier films, such as gloss cloth, are generally used to facilitatethe application of the adhesive, but they also provide a degree of reinforcementand lowering of the coefficient of thermal expansion. Thus, they alsoreduce the degree of internal stress experienced at the joint'sinterface.


  1. Krieger, R.B., and Politi, R. E., "High Temperature Structural Adhesives",in Aspects of Adhesion, vol. 3, D. J. Alner, ed., London UniversityPress, 1967.
  2. Black, J. M., and Bloomquist, R. F., "Metal Bonding Adhesivesfor High Temperature Service", Modern Plastics, June 1956.
  3. Wilkinson, et. al., Polymer Preprints, 33 (1), 1992, p. 425.
  4. Shimp, D. A., et. al., "Co-Reaction of Epoxide and Cyanate Resins,"33rd SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, Anaheim, CA, Mar. 7-10, 1988.


Which polymer is used as structural adhesive? ›

The most common is the caulking-gun-dispensable adhesive in either one-part or two-part forms. Structural adhesives include epoxies, phenolics, polyurethanes, acrylics, cyanoacrylates, urea-formaldehydes, and bismaleimides.

Which adhesive can sustain very high temperature? ›

Heat resistant adhesives include cyanoacrylates, epoxies, acrylics, silicone and urethane.

Why are polymers used in adhesives? ›

The polymers used in synthetic adhesives fall into two general categories—thermoplastics and thermosets. Thermoplastics provide strong, durable adhesion at normal temperatures, and they can be softened for application by heating without undergoing degradation.

What is the adhesive recommended for structural purposes? ›

Epoxy Structural Adhesive

Epoxy structural adhesives are among the most versatile, bonding easily to many substrates and offering a wide range of properties that ensure excellent shear strength in permanent bonding applications.

What are the strongest structural adhesives? ›

Epoxy adhesives generally provide the most strength and overall best performance. They also provide the best resistance to temperature, weather, and solvents. These adhesives can be used to bond wood, concrete, and metal, and there are flexible epoxy options that are suited for use with some plastics and rubbers.

What is an example of structural polymer? ›

Many structural polymers, including nylons, polypropylene, polystyrene, fluoropolymers, and epoxies have been combined with layered silicates to form nanocomposites that display improved mechanical stability compared to the pristine polymers or fiber-reinforced polymer micro/macrocomposites.

What glue can withstand 1000 degrees? ›

ST-1000 thermal glue used to adhere fireplace sealing ropes and tapes and other insulating materials in high temperature places. Because of its durability (can withstand temperature up to 950°C or 1742°F) it can be used in fireplaces, furnaces, boilers, grills, smokehouses, etc.

What glue can withstand 500 degrees? ›

Permatex's 500° High Heat Epoxy is the first and only high temperature liquid syringe epoxy. Ideal for surface repairs with high temperatures such as under-hood automotive and home repair. This high temperature epoxy withstands 2X higher temperatures compared to standard epoxies that traditionally breakdown at 250°F.

Which type of adhesive is also called a hot melt? ›

Hot-melt adhesive (HMA), also known as hot glue, is a form of thermoplastic adhesive that is commonly sold as solid cylindrical sticks of various diameters designed to be applied using a hot glue gun.

What is the main purpose of polymers? ›

Polymers help us to save energy, with lighter vehicles and insulated buildings; package consumable goods; reduce land use and fertilisers, thanks to synthetic fibres; preserve other materials using coatings; and save lives by way of countless medical applications.

Are most adhesives made of polymers? ›

Most adhesives today are made of polymers.

Why are polymers used in construction? ›

Polymer materials have been widely used in the construction industry due to their superior chemical and physical properties, and have been utilized in wall insulation, wire and cable, drainage pipe, and insulation layers of water supply pipes.

What will construction adhesive not stick to? ›

Hot glue will not stick to very smooth surfaces, like metal, silicone, vinyl, wax, or greasy and wet surfaces.

What is the difference between structural and non structural adhesive? ›

In structural adhesive bonding, the adherends (the objects being bonded) experience large stresses up to their yield point. Nonstructural adhesives are not required to support substantial loads but merely hold lightweight materials in place.

What is the world's strongest adhesive? ›

The name of the world's strongest adhesive is DELO MONOPOX. This is a modified version of the high-temperature-resistant DELO MONOPOX HT2860. This epoxy resin forms a very dense network during heat curing.

What is the strongest adhesive known? ›

Epoxy is the strongest adhesive known to man. This assures that it will never become loose.

What are the 4 types of polymers? ›

The four basic polymer structures are linear, branched, crosslinked, and networked.

What are 3 examples of polymers? ›

Examples of synthetic polymers include nylon, polyethylene, polyester, Teflon, and epoxy. Natural polymers occur in nature and can be extracted. They are often water-based. Examples of naturally occurring polymers are silk, wool, DNA, cellulose and proteins.

What are the 3 different polymer structures? ›

A single polymer molecule may consist of hundreds to a million monomers and may have a linear, branched, or network structure.

What temperature can Gorilla Glue withstand? ›

Gorilla Super Glue Gel can typically be exposed to temperatures ranging from -40°F to 200°F without breaking down. However, there can be variation to this range due to the way different substrates expand and contract in extreme temperatures.

What is a super strong all weather glue? ›

White Gorilla Glue is a 100% waterproof glue, safe for indoor and outdoor use and strong enough to stand up to the elements. The white glue easily bonds foam, wood, metal, ceramic, stone and much more!

Is there a high temp super glue? ›

The Adhesive Systems Inc (ASI) HT Series cyanoacrylate super glue is a high temperature resistant adhesive that can withstand up to 275 Degrees F of heat. It creates a strong, lasting bond even when temperatures are cycled from high to low for or kept at the top range for extended periods of time.

What is the best epoxy for high heat? ›

Permatex®s 500 High Heat Epoxy is the first and only high temperature liquid syringe epoxy! Ideal for surface repairs with high temperatures such as under-hood automotive & home repair. This high temperature epoxy withstands 2X higher temperatures compared to standard epoxies that traditionally breakdown at 250°F.

How do you glue metal to metal at high temperature? ›

One part epoxy adhesives are not only the strongest glue for metal to metal, they also provide the highest heat resistance.

What temperature can Loctite super glue withstand? ›

Thanks to its new formula it's also resistant to shock, water, dishwashers and extreme temperatures from -50°C up to 120°C. Stick the handles back onto your saucepans with Loctite super glue.

What polymers are used in hot melt adhesives? ›

The primary polymers used in hot melts are ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), polyolefins, polyamides and polyesters, styrene block copolymers, polyethylene, and ethylene-methyl acrylate (EMA) or ethylene n-butyl acrylate (EnBA).

How do you make hot glue stronger? ›

Like almost every glue I write about in my adhesive tutorials, you can help strengthen an adhesive bond by giving your bonding surfaces some 'tooth'. For hot glue bonds, you are going to want to rough up any smooth surfaces with sandpaper, giving the glue something on the bonding surface to grab on to.

What is hot melt adhesives for construction? ›

Best Sellers
  • knottec® Knot Filling Wood Repair Oak x10 Sticks. ...
  • tecbond® 267 43 High Temp Resistant Hot Melt 10kg. ...
  • Spraytec™ 425 43 High Delivery Spray Hot Melt 10kg. ...
  • tecbond® 260 15 High Performance Hot Melt 5kg. ...
  • tecbond® OverTec 5FR Black 5kg. ...
  • tecbond® 261 15 High performance Hot Melt Adhesive.

What are 7 uses of polymers? ›

Product made from polymers are all around us: clothing made from synthetic fibers, polyethylene cups, fiberglass, nylon bearings, plastic bags, polymer-based paints, epoxy glue, polyurethane foam cushion, silicone heart valves, and Teflon-coated cookware.

Which polymer is most important? ›

Polyolefins and related polymers

By far the most important industrial polymers (for example, virtually all the commodity plastics) are polymerized olefins. Olefins are hydrocarbons (compounds containing hydrogen [H] and carbon [C]) whose molecules contain a pair of carbon atoms linked together by a double bond.

What is the difference between a polymer and plastic? ›

Polymers can exist organically or be created synthetically, and consist of chains of joined individual molecules or monomers. Plastics are a type of polymer composed of chains of polymers which can be partially organic or fully synthetic. Simply put, all plastics are polymers, but not all polymers are plastics.

What is the strongest polymer bond? ›

Hydrogen bonding can take place when the polymer molecule contains -OH or -NH groups. Hydrogen bonding is the strongest of the intermolecular forces.

What is the strongest polymer plastic? ›

PAI – Polyamideimide (PAI) boasts the highest tensile strength of any plastic at 21,000 psi. This high performance plastic has the highest strength of any unreinforced thermoplastic, good wear and radiation resistance, inherently low flammability and smoke emission, and high thermal stability.

What chemicals are used to make adhesive? ›

Thermoplastic resins employed in adhesives include nitrocellulose, polyvinyl acetate, vinyl acetate-ethylene copolymer, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyamides, polyesters, acrylics, and cyanoacrylics.

What are commonly used polymers in construction? ›

They include plastics, rubbers, thermoplastic elastomers, adhesives, foams, paints and sealants.

What are the commonly used polymers in civil engineering and what are their uses? ›

PVC is the polymer that is most widely used in construction applications. It remains in great demand because of its competitive advantages with respect to flame resistance, safety, frictional behavior, and design versatility.

What are the advantages of polymers? ›

Polymers are more resistant to chemicals than their metal counterparts. Polymer parts do not require post-treatment finishing efforts, unlike metal. Polymer and composite materials are up to ten times lighter than typical metals. Polymers are naturally radar absorbent as well as thermally and electrically insulating.

What is the best type of adhesive? ›

What is the strongest adhesive? In terms of tensile strength the strongest adhesives are epoxy adhesives, specifically single component heat curable epoxy adhesives. Let me clarify – single component epoxy adhesives have the highest tensile strength often 35-41 N/mm² (5100– 6000 psi).

What is the best type of adhesive and why? ›

Super Glue

Often the best glue for household projects. Repairs broken ceramics as well as industrial uses like automotive assembly. This type of glue can vary in toxicity, so it's important to check the label before use.

What are most adhesives made of today? ›

Today, most glues are made from polymers, a group of chemical compounds that consist of large molecules with repeating subunits. The molecular structure of polymers give them their toughness and elasticity, making polymers (both natural and manmade ones) ubiquitous in daily life.

What weakens adhesive? ›

Heat the area using a blow dryer or a heat gun on low. As the heat weakens the bond, use a card, scraper, putty knife, or other edge to peel off the residue.

Can construction adhesive withstand heat? ›

Details: LIQUID NAILS® Extreme Heavy Duty Construction Adhesive (LN-907) offers outstanding adhesion, durability and performance in extreme conditions, bonding in temperatures from 22° F to 120° F. All weather, all season performance helps get the job done right in any condition.

Can I use Gorilla Glue as construction adhesive? ›

Gorilla Heavy Duty Construction Adhesive is a tough, versatile, all-weather adhesive. The 100% adhesive formula provides a long-lasting, heavy duty bond. We call it All Surface, All Purpose*.

What are the three types or categories of adhesives? ›

These groups are: natural rubber adhesives, synthetic rubber adhesives, and acrylic adhesives. Although these three groups of adhesives can vary, they each carry very specific characteristics.

Is epoxy a structural adhesive? ›

'Epoxy' is often used as a generic term for a structural adhesive, but epoxy adhesives are actually a very specific class of structural adhesives. These chemistries are durable in demanding conditions, including not only outdoor weathering but also many solvents and other conditions.

What is a structural polymer? ›

A polymer is composed of many simple molecules that are repeating structural units called monomers. A single polymer molecule may consist of hundreds to a million monomers and may have a linear, branched, or network structure.

What is adhesive material used in construction? ›

There are multiple chemistries for construction adhesives. Common ingredients include clay, cement, acrylic resin, polyurethane monomers, styrene-butadiene rubber, hexane and other nonpolar solvents, and various initiators and functional additives.

What are the three main types of polymers? ›

There are 3 principal classes of polymers – thermoplastics, thermosets, and elastomers. Differentiation between these classes is best defined by their behaviour under applied heat. Thermoplastic polymers can be either amorphous or crystalline. They behave in a relatively ductile manner but often have low strength.

What is the strongest polymer group? ›

In general strongest polymer group is Thermosets

<br> Distinguish between thermoplastic polymers and thermosetting polymers.

What is the most used adhesive? ›

Super glue is the most common product name. They come in thin and thick bodied. CA glues dry very quickly, and they work well on a wide variety of both porous and nonporous materials.

What is the most adhesive material? ›

The name of the world's strongest adhesive is DELO MONOPOX. This is a modified version of the high-temperature-resistant DELO MONOPOX HT2860. This epoxy resin forms a very dense network during heat curing.


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